Wednesday, March 25, 2020

Analysis of The Yellow Wallpaper by C. Perkins Gilman

Analysis of The Yellow Wallpaper by C. Perkins Gilman Like Kate Chopins The Story of an Hour,  Charlotte Perkins Gilmans The Yellow Wallpaper  is a mainstay of feminist literary study. First published in 1892, the story takes the form of secret journal entries written by a woman who is supposed to be recovering from what her husband, a physician, calls a  nervous condition. This haunting psychological horror story chronicles the narrators descent into madness, or perhaps into the paranormal. Or perhaps, depending on your interpretation, into freedom. The result is a story as chilling as anything by Edgar Allan Poe or Stephen King. Better Health Through Infantilization The protagonists husband, John, does not take her illness seriously. Nor does he take her seriously. He prescribes, among other things, a rest cure, in which she is confined to their summer home, mostly to her bedroom. The woman is discouraged from doing anything intellectual even though she believes some excitement and change would do her good. She must write in secret. And she is allowed very little company- certainly not from the stimulating people she most wishes to see. In short, John treats her like a child, calling her diminutive names like blessed little goose and little girl. He makes all decisions for her and isolates her from the things she cares about. His actions are couched in concern for her, a position that she initially seems to believe herself. He is very careful and loving, she writes in her journal, and hardly lets me stir without special direction. Her words also sound as if she is merely parroting what shes been told, and hardly lets me stir seems to harbor a veiled complaint. Even her bedroom is not the one she wanted; instead, its a room that appears to have once been a nursery, thus emphasizing her return to infancy. Its windows are barred for little children, showing again that she is being treated as a child, and also that she is like a prisoner. Fact  Versus Fancy John dismisses anything that hints of emotion or irrationality- what he calls fancy. For instance, when the narrator says that the wallpaper in her bedroom disturbs her, he informs her that she is letting the wallpaper get the better of her and thus refuses to remove it. John doesnt simply dismiss things he finds fanciful; he also uses the charge of fancy to dismiss anything he doesnt like. In other words, if he doesnt want to accept something, he declares that it is irrational. When the narrator tries to have a reasonable talk with him about her situation, she is so distraught that she is reduced to tears. But instead of interpreting her tears as evidence of her suffering, he takes them as evidence that she is irrational and cant be trusted to make decisions for herself. He speaks to her as if she is a whimsical child, imagining her own illness. Bless her little heart! he says. She shall be as sick as she pleases! He does not want to acknowledge that her problems are real and so he silences her. The only way the narrator could appear rational to John would be to become satisfied with her situation; therefore, there is no way for her to express concerns or ask for changes. In her journal, the narrator writes: John does not know how much I really suffer. He knows there is no reason to suffer, and that satisfies him. John cant imagine anything outside his own judgment. So when he determines that the narrators life is satisfactory, he imagines that the fault lies with her perception of her life. It never occurs to him that her situation might really need improvement. The Wallpaper The  nursery walls are covered in putrid yellow wallpaper with a confused, eerie pattern. The narrator is horrified by it. She studies the incomprehensible pattern in the wallpaper, determined to make sense of it. But rather than making sense of it, she begins to discern a second pattern- that of a woman creeping furtively around behind the first pattern, which acts a prison for her. The first pattern of the wallpaper can be seen as the societal expectations that hold women like the narrator captive. The narrators recovery will be measured by how cheerfully she resumes her domestic duties as wife and mother, and her desire to do anything else- like write- is seen to interfere with that recovery. Though the narrator studies and studies the pattern in the wallpaper, it never makes any sense to her. Similarly, no matter how hard she tries to recover, the terms of her recovery- embracing her domestic role- never make any sense to her, either. The creeping woman can represent both victimizations by the societal norms and resistance to them. This creeping woman also gives a clue about why the first pattern is so troubling and ugly. It seems to be peppered with distorted heads with bulging eyes- the heads of other creeping women who were strangled by the pattern when they tried to escape it. That is, women who couldnt survive when they tried to resist cultural norms. Gilman writes that nobody could climb through that pattern- it strangles so. Becoming a Creeping Woman Eventually, the narrator becomes a creeping woman. The first indication is when she says, rather startlingly, I always lock the door when I creep by daylight. Later, the narrator and the creeping woman work together to pull off the wallpaper. The narrator writes, [T]here are so many of those creeping women, and they creep so fast. So the narrator is one of many. That her shoulder just fits into the groove on the wall is sometimes interpreted to mean that she has been the one ripping the paper and creeping around the room all along. But it could also be interpreted as an assertion that her situation is no different from that of many other women. In this interpretation, The Yellow Wallpaper becomes not just a story about one womans madness, but a maddening system. At one point, the narrator observes the creeping women from her window and asks, I wonder if they all come out of that wallpaper as I did? Her coming out of the wallpaper- her freedom- coincides with a descent into mad behavior, ripping off the paper, locking herself in her room, even biting the immovable bed. That is, her freedom comes when she finally reveals her beliefs and behavior to those around her and stops hiding. The final scene, in which John faints, and the narrator continues to creep around the room, stepping over him every time, is disturbing but also triumphant. Now John is the one who is weak and sickly, and the narrator is the one who finally gets to determine the rules of her own existence. She is finally convinced that he only pretended to be loving and kind. After being consistently infantilized by his prescriptions and comments, she turns the tables on him by addressing him condescendingly, if only in her mind, as young man. John refused to remove the wallpaper, and in the end, the narrator used it as her escape.

Friday, March 6, 2020

legalizing p.a.s essays

legalizing p.a.s essays Imagine you are in a permanent state of vegetation or that you have been diagnosed with an incurable disease that will inevitably lead to a painful death. No one would ever want to be in either of these situations. But what about those who already are? Must they continue to live an unpleasant and futile life? A large number of people would rather end their life than be stuck in that kind of situation. Those people would be contemplating what many know as physician-assisted suicide, or PAS. According to the American Geriatrics Society, PAS is when a physician provides either equipment or medication, or informs the patient of the most efficacious use of already available means, for the purpose of assisting the patient to end his or her own life,(AGS). Some common forms of PAS include, but are not limited to, withholding or withdrawing life-sustaining treatments and administering lethal doses of medication to induce death. Unfortunately, some arguments concerning how ethical i t is have caused people to overlook the benefits of the act, and view PAS in a more negative light. I have had a heightened curiosity about PAS ever since I watched a close friend of my family experience a slow agonizing death the last year of his life. He had to wait several months for a court date to determine whether or not his physician could practice PAS. He was taken away from us before the court date arrived. The question of ethics goes hand in hand with physician-assisted suicide. According to the American Medical Association (AMA) physician-assisted suicide is unethical on the grounds that actively ending a patients life is fundamentally incompatible with the physicians role as healer,(PCRM). Instead of aiding the suicide, the AMA feels that physicians must aggressively respond to the needs of the patients at end of life. However, the AMA also believes that if a competent patient or the famil...

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Ethnographic research paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words

Ethnographic - Research Paper Example According to oral history passed on over generations, the Maasai culture is said to have begun in the 15th century (Strang 2010). The Maasai people have interacted with the Cushites who have been their neighbors hence adopting most of their lifestyles. The interaction led to assimilation of some of the Cushitic groups in East Africa leading to the Maasai’s extension of their boundaries further south to Tanzania. Their culture has been a source of tourist attraction in both countries. It has also attracted scholars and anthropologists who have studied the culture deeply to come up with its social and cultural roots and understand its activities. Their strong cultural bonds have helped in the endurance of the Maasai culture in the dynamic world due to impacts from Western cultures. The Maasai has the age-set as the central unit of their society. It consists of small boys and girls who have undergone the set rituals to become adults. The boys in the same age-set start taking care of their cattle at tender ages making most of them skip school. To encourage them and ensure survival in different situations, they are frequently beaten to help them gain courage that is useful while herding cattle in the wild. The girls are allocated duties such as milking and cooking (Strang 2010). They learn most of their roles from their parents as soon as they stop breastfeeding. As for the boys, they are initiated into morans (Warriors) from the ages of 12-25 years. Circumcision is a rite of passage that involves both genders. Boys have to undergo painful circumcision procedures that ensure they become strong men in the future. Society elders who use locally available tools; hence, lack anesthetics in the procedure perform the ritual. The boys are believed to undergo the pain in silence and fight it on their own. Failure of endurance leads the marking of the individual making him known to the community of being a coward. During the circumcision

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

Effects of Entire les Murs On Traditional French National Identity Essay

Effects of Entire les Murs On Traditional French National Identity - Essay Example This report stresses that someone who views this film for the first time may be obliged to have a negative attitude towards French culture due the fact that pupils are a force to learn it at schools. The fact that this teacher enjoys French does not mean that everybody will like it and failure to understand that will cause someone who might have been willing to learn the French culture to have second thoughts about it. If a certain pupil does not understand this language, then definitely he/she will assume that their culture is not that pleasing as well hence dislikes it. This paper makes a conclusion that the Entre les murs is a good representation of the French education system that has its guiding rules from the western ideas. However, these ideas have caused problems by affecting other cultural groups without taking into consideration their rights. Although public education is free in France and it has been every citizen's right to access it, the way it is made available violates other people's culture and rights. This is because the education system is public centralized and incorporates compulsory French language classes that are not liked by many. This film widely focuses on ethnicity and the failure of the French education system to incorporate other people's ethnicity into their system. If that were not possible, then the education system would try to avoid making the French culture compulsory to foreign students who were interested in learning in France.

Monday, January 27, 2020

Needs and Expectations of Healthcare Stakeholders Case

Needs and Expectations of Healthcare Stakeholders Case You are asked to critically investigate and validate the needs and expectations of healthcare stakeholders in relation to the above ABC Concordia Healthcare Ltd organisation’s policy on equality and diversity. Prepare a summary of your investigate on the needs and expectations of Concordia Healthcare Ltd which relate to: Internal organizational needs External needs Fairness and justice The impact of prejudice and discrimination on individuals and groups Answer Organizational Needs and Expectations The consideration of organizational needs and expectations has a positive effect on outcome of health care delivery programmes or systems. Equality is the state of being equal, especially in status, rights or opportunities. Diversity means understanding that each individual is unique and recognizing our individual difference. Policy is a course or principle of action adopted by an organization or individual. It is set of principles or rules that provides a definite direction for an organization. An equality policy is a written statement showing that your organization actively opposes discrimination .It demonstrates your commitment to making organization a fully accessible that welcomes and respects diversity. Developing an inclusive equality policy is one of the key factor in creating a sustainable organization that reflects the rich diversity of society and ensures equality of opportunity for everyone involved.[1] Internal needs and expectations If there is anything any that is steadfast and is unchanging, it is change itself and the organization that does not accept change that is the cause of failure or domain. There are events or situations that occur that affect the organization in two ways, in positive or negative way. The internal needs are easier to control, it usually are management changes, employee morale, culture changes and financial changes. The clients want the deals with them on the basis of their skills and experience instead of race and cast. They want the organization to focus on their physical disability. The clients want respect for their cultures, values, beliefs and preference and they need a friendly and comfortable environment. And we can say like that there few main expectations of every individual from an organization that should be met to make the working environment good and comfortable. These expectations are respect for their values, preference and expressed needs. Coordination and integration. The clients of an organization needs full information and communication. External Needs External environmental factors or needs are the events that take place outside the of the organization and are harder to predict and control. These needs can b more dangerous for an organization if are not met by the organization. These needs include the changes to the economy, threats from the competitions, political factors, government regulations or the industry itself. External needs also include the customers and contractors because without them they can not work and earn anything. Technology and resources are also the external needs requires for the proper functioning of an organization.[2] Fairness and Justice A lack of organizational justice can lead to negative outcomes, such as lower performance, lower satisfaction and higher absenteeism. To prevent the organization from the negative outcomes, the organization should promote equality and diversity policy that applies to service provision and not just employment. The organization to make a commitment to tackle discrimination. It should provide equal opportunities and access to all stake holders and support equality act 2010. The organization should use the policy to train the staff and integrate the policy into their activities. Organizational needs to explain hoe the policy will be put into practice and how it will be communicated to all staff and service users. The policy should be linked to the complaints and disciplinary procedures. The impact of prejudice and discrimination on individuals and groups Prejudice is a preconceived opinion not based on research or experience. Discrimination is the unjust or prejudicial treatment or different categories of people or things especially on grounds of race, age or sex. There is endless number off groups affected by prejudice and discrimination around the word and these are lower class, different cultures, women, different religions, elderly, and immigrants. Homosexuals, different races, teenagers, mentally or physically challenged. Examples of prejudice and discrimination are as teens are often discriminated against because people assume that they are rebellious and unless when teens are often very helpful and compassionate. Second is women who are often judged because of their past struggles to obtain acknowledgement by society as person. Immigrants are sometimes not allowed into a country or not given work because they are simply too different and people cannot accept change ,not realizing that they are fully capable of accomplishing tasks just as easily as someone of a similar race to themselves Effects on the individual are Acceptance- They believe what is being said about them. They feel that they have an inferior status in society. Accommodation- They don’t like or believe what is being said about them, but try and make the best of the situation. Voluntary segregation- Groups may live or work in separate areas in order to feel more comfortable and to succeed. Organized Protest- A person may join organizations to help fight against discrimination and get involved with marches, protest, and media exposure. Aggression- A person may take action against a prejudice individual’s property. Examples of aggression are crime and terrorism. Effects on the Discriminators are this person feels hate and resentment in their life. They don’t enjoy life or people as much as they could have. They focus only on one aspect of some individuals. They tend to lose friends (People don’t like to associate with the discriminator In conclusion, prejudice and discrimination is a serious issue that affects many people including the individual, the discriminators and society. The citizens should pay more attention to the solutions to prejudice and discrimination then may be society feel more comfortable Task 2 Consider what ABC Concordia Healthcare Ltd organisation’s policy currently proposes as methods to address, review and monitor equality and diversity issues in the organisation. You are asked to propose improvements to address gaps or shortfalls in their systems and processes. Consider where improvements could be made in terms of plans, team meetings, roles and responsibilities, timescales, audit, policy reform and allocation of resources. Answer ABC Concordia healthcare LTD Equality and diversity guidance and policy 2012 Investigation Results The internal organization needs the following changes to be included in the organization for making the environment comfortable for the clients and promote the work. The organization needs to take steps to identify the need of each and every client in the organization. Needs to devise the policies and procedures and to put in place customers service, should provide appropriate facilities and services and draw up a plan. Moreover, take appropriate actions wherever is needed, Monitor and record equal and provide opportunities on the basis of their experience instead of age, gender, ethnicity and disability. Solutions and preventions of prejudice and discrimination are; know the facts of the problem or situation. Be aware of your attitude and behaviour towards other clients. The words should be carefully selected before saying anything to the employees in an organization. The focus should on the positive and others should be supported. Get to know the people from the other groups. Hold monthly meetings with the staff. Recommendations; the organization should review the needs and finalize policies –strategic planning activity. It should formulate procedures for every policy covering all corners of its concern; communicate the approved policies and procedures to all. The organization should conduct regular meetings as follow ups on feedback and incident report.[3] References www.equalityhumanright.com www.managementhelp.org/orgcom/ [1] [2] [3]

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Demarcation in Philosophy of Science Essay

The demarcation problem in the philosophy of science is about how to distinguish between science and nonscience, and more specifically, between science and pseudoscience (a theory or method doubtfully or mistakenly held to be scientific). The debate continues after over a century of dialogue among philosophers of science and scientists in various fields, and despite broad agreement on the basics of scientific method. The demarcation problem is the philosophical problem of determining what types of hypotheses should be considered scientific and what types should be considered pseudoscientific or non-scientific. It also concerns itself with the ongoing struggle between science and religion, in particular the question about which elements of religious doctrine can and should be subjected to scientific scrutiny. This is one of the central topics of the philosophy of science, and it has never been fully resolved. The Purpose of Demarcation Demarcations of science from pseudoscience can be made for both theoretical and practical reasons. From a theoretical point of view, the demarcation issue is an illuminating perspective that contributes to the philosophy of science. From a practical point of view, the distinction is important for decision guidance in both private and public life. Since science is our most reliable source of knowledge in a wide variety of areas, we need to distinguish scientific knowledge from its look-alikes. Due to the high status of science in present-day society, attempts to exaggerate the scientific status of various claims, teachings, and products are common enough to make the demarcation issue pressing in many areas. The demarcation issue is therefore important in many practical applications such as the following: Healthcare: Medical science develops and evaluates treatments according to evidence of their efficiency. Pseudoscientific activities in this area give rise to inefficient and sometimes dangerous interventions. Healthcare providers, insurers, government authorities and – most importantly – patients need guidance on how to distinguish between medical science and medical pseudoscience. Expert testimony: It is essential for the rule of law that courts get the facts right. The reliability of different types of evidence must be correctly determined, and expert testimony must be based on the best available knowledge. Sometimes it is in the interest of litigants to present non-scientific claims as solid science. Therefore courts must be able to distinguish between science and pseudoscience. Environmental policies: In order to be on the safe side against potential disasters it may be legitimate to take preventive measures when there is valid but yet insufficient evidence of an environmental hazard. This must be distinguished from taking measures against an alleged hazard for which there is no valid evidence at all. Therefore, decision-makers in environmental policy must be able to distinguish between scientific and pseudoscientific claims. Science education: The promoters of some pseudosciences (notably creationism) try to introduce their teachings on school curricula. Teachers and school authorities need to have clear criteria of inclusion that protect students against unreliable and disproved teachings Ancient Greek Science An early attempt at demarcation can be seen in the efforts of Greek natural philosophers and medical practitioners to distinguish their methods and their accounts of nature from the mythological or mystical accounts of their predecessors and contemporaries. Medical writers in the Hippocratic tradition maintained that their discussions were based on necessary demonstrations, a theme developed by Aristotle in his â€Å"Posterior Analytics†. One element of this polemic (passionate argument) for science was an insistence on a clear and definite presentation of arguments, rejecting the imagery, analogy, and myth of the old wisdom. Aristotle described at length what was involved in having scientific knowledge of something. To be scientific, he said, one must deal with causes, one must use logical demonstration, and one must identify the universals which ‘inhere’ in the particulars of sense. Criteria for Demarcation: Logical Positivism also known as Verificationism * Held that only statements about empirical observations and formal logical propositions are meaningful, and that statements which are not derived in this manner (including religious and metaphysical statements) are by nature meaningless. * The Viennese philosophers who introduced the positivist paradigm effectively laid the groundwork for the modern philosophy of science and one of its most important strands of thought. The early Positivists favored a rather strict approach to the demarcation and strongly affirmed the empirical nature of science, meaning that questions that cannot be empirically verified or falsified are irrelevant to scientific thought. * These philosophers, who called themselves logical positivists, argued that to produce a meaningful claim, one must always return to the tangible observations that result from that claim. * By the late 1970s, its ideas were so generally recognized to be seriously defective. Falsifiability * Proposed by Karl Popper. In his monumental book, â€Å"The Logic of Scientific Discovery† he proposed the idea that scientific hypotheses must be falsifiable; unfalsifiable hypotheses should be considered pseudoscience. Popper’s emphasis on falsifiability changed the way scientists viewed the demarcation problem, and his impact on philosophy of science was enormous. * Popper’s demarcation criterion has been criticized both for excluding legitimate science and for giving some pseudosciences the status of being scientific. Postpositivism * Thomas Kuhn, an American historian and philosopher of science, is often connected with what has been called postpositivism. * In 1962, Kuhn published The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, which depicted the development of the basic natural sciences in an innovative way. According to Kuhn, the sciences do not uniformly progress strictly by scientific method. Rather, there are two fundamentally different phases of scientific development in the sciences. In the first phase, scientists work within a paradigm (set of accepted beliefs). When the foundation of the paradigm weakens and new theories and scientific methods begin to replace it, the next phase of scientific discovery takes place. Kuhn believes that scientific progress—that is, progress from one paradigm to another—has no logical reasoning. He undermines science as a whole by arguing that what is considered science changes throughout history in such a way that there is no objective way (outside of time or place) to demarcate a scientific belief from a pseudoscientific belief. Science, Kuhn argues, is like politics: institutions believe that certain ways are better than others at different points throughout history; however, it is impossible to be more or less certain of our basic assumptions about the world. Within a democracy (a specific political paradigm) there can be progress: an economy can grow, schools can be built, and people can be given healthcare. However, if a revolution occurs and the country becomes socialist, the government is not inherently better or worse than before, but simply begins to follow a different set of assumptions. Paradigm shift * A paradigm shift is a phenomenon described by philosopher Thomas Kuhn in The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. * Kuhn posited a process to explain the persistence of incorrect ideas, and the seemingly rapid and sudden abandonment of these ideas when they finally are rejected. * People tend to believe in what they know, and science is basically conservative. A current â€Å"paradigm† or theory is difficult to dislodge. It takes either a large volume of evidence, or a particularly powerful single piece of evidence to overturn major scientific theories (scientific revolution). When this occurs, it is called a â€Å"paradigm shift†. Lakatos’ research programs * Imre Lakatos combined elements of Popper and Kuhn’s philosophies with his concept of research programs. Programs that succeed at predicting novel facts are scientific, while ones that fail ultimately lapse into pseudoscience. Feyerabend and Lakatos * Kuhn’s work largely called into question Popper’s demarcation, and emphasized the human, subjective quality of scientific change. Paul Feyerabend was concerned that the very question of demarcation was insidious: science itself had no need of a demarcation criterion, but instead some philosophers were seeking to justify a special position of authority from which science could dominate public discourse. Feyerabend argued that science does not in fact occupy a special place in terms of either its logic or method, and no claim to special authority made by scientists can be upheld. He argued that, within the history of scientific practice, no rule or method can be found that has not been violated or circumvented at some point in order to advance scientific knowledge. Both Lakatos and Feyerabend suggest that science is not an autonomous form of reasoning, but is inseparable from the larger body of human thought and inquiry. NOMA * The concept of Non-overlapping Magisteria is a relatively recent attempt at proposing a clear demarcation between science and religion. It explicitly restricts science to its naturalistic foundations, meaning that no conclusions about supernatural phenomena like gods may be drawn from within the confines of science. â€Å"As to the supposed ‘conflict’†¦between science and religion, no such conflict should exist because each subject has a legitimate magisterium, or domain of teaching authority—and these magisteria do not overlap.† Criteria based on scientific progress Popper’s demarcation criterion concerns the logical structure of theories. Imre Lakatos described this criterion as â€Å"a rather stunning one. A theory may be scientific even if there is not a shred of evidence in its favour, and it may be pseudoscientific even if all the available evidence is in its favour. That is, the scientific or non-scientific character of a theory can be determined independently of the facts†. Instead, Lakatos proposed a modification of Popper’s criterion that he called â€Å"sophisticated (methodological) falsificationism†. On this view, the demarcation criterion should not be applied to an isolated hypothesis or theory but rather to a whole research program that is characterized by a series of theories successively replacing each other. In his view, a research program is progressive if the new theories make surprising predictions that are confirmed. In contrast, a degenerating research programme is characterized by theories bein g fabricated only in order to accommodate known facts. Progress in science is only possible if a research program satisfies the minimum requirement that each new theory that is developed in the program has a larger empirical content than its predecessor. If a research program does not satisfy this requirement, then it is pseudoscientific. According to Paul Thagard, a theory or discipline is pseudoscientific if it satisfies two criteria. One of these is that the theory fails to progress, and the other that â€Å"the community of practitioners makes little attempt to develop the theory towards solutions of the problems, shows no concern for attempts to evaluate the theory in relation to others, and is selective in considering confirmations and disconfirmations†. A major difference between his approach and that of Lakatos is that Lakatos would classify a nonprogressive discipline as pseudoscientific even if its practitioners work hard to improve it and turn it into a progressive discipline. In a somewhat similar vein, Daniel Rothbart (1990) emphasized the distinction between the standards that should be used when testing a theory and those that should be used when determining whether a theory should at all be tested. The latter, the eligibility criteria, include that the theory should encapsulate the explanatory success of its rival, and that it should yield test implications that are inconsistent with those of the rival. According to Rothbart, a theory is unscientific if it is not testworthy in this sense. George Reisch proposed that demarcation could be based on the requirement that a scientific discipline be adequately integrated into the other sciences. The various scientific disciplines have strong interconnections that are based on methodology, theory, similarity of models etc. Creationism, for instance, is not scientific because its basic principles and beliefs are incompatible with those that connect and unify the sciences. More generally speaking, says Reisch, an epistemic field is pseudoscientific if it cannot be incorporated into the existing network of established sciences. Rejection of the Problem * Some philosophers have rejected the idea of the demarcation problem, such as Larry Laudan. Others like Susan Haack, while not rejecting the problem wholesale, argue that a misleading emphasis has been placed on the problem that results in getting stuck in arguments over definitions rather than evidence. Laudan * Larry Laudan concluded, after examining various historical attempts to establish a demarcation criterion, that â€Å"philosophy has failed to deliver the goods† in its attempts to distinguish science from non-science—to distinguish science from pseudoscience. None of the past attempts would be accepted by a majority of philosophers nor, in his view, should they be accepted by them or by anyone else. He stated that many well-founded beliefs are not scientific and, conversely, many scientific conjectures are not well-founded. 3 Major Reasons why Demarcation is sometimes difficult: * science changes over time, * science is heterogeneous and; * established science itself is not free of the defects characteristic of pseudoscience

Friday, January 10, 2020

Anthrax and Smallpox

One major difference between the pathogens that cause anthrax and smallpox is that anthrax is a form of bacteria while smallpox is an example of a virus,   Anthrax is caused by the bacteria Bacillus anthracis.B. anthracis was the first bacterium which was shown to cause disease by Robert Koch in 1877. B. anthracis has two forms – vegetative and spore state. In its spore state, the bacteria can lay dormant for years. When the spore enters a host, the bacterium reactivates into its vegetative state and then cause disease. It is the spores of the bacterium which is used as a biological weapon.Smallpox on the other hand caused by the variola virus. Unlike anthrax which is communicated via its spore state, smallpox virus is directly communicated directly from host to host via respiratory droplets or contact with bodily fluids. Smallpox is a biological weapon due to the successful efforts of the WHO to eradicate the disease. With smallpox eliminated, no one has any immunity from t he disease and the release of a smallpox sample will have disastrous effects on the population.2. Plague is caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. Plague is spread to human hosts after being bit by fleas which carry the disease or through contact with infected animals. While causing severe deaths in Europe during the Middle Ages, modern day plague is curable with antibiotics though it can still be lethal when left untreated.To this day, plague outbreaks are still caused by flea infested rat populations. In rural areas, squirrels and other known flea vectors are known carriers of the plague bacteria.Anthrax as mentioned spreads as spores which are reactivated once inside a host. The environment rich in sugars and amino acids triggers the reversal of the spores into an active state. Anthrax can enter the body in three ways – through inahalation, digestion or through entry in small cracks in the skin.3. The role of the WHO in preparing for anthrax is that of a think tank. The WHO cannot directly move to prevent the spread of anthrax in countries but it offers valuable aid for the anti-anthrax actions of member countries in the UN. It acts as a well respected adviser on anthrax related issues.We can think of the WHO as providing a service for the anti-biological weapon efforts of the UN member countries. Some of the services the WHO provides include training activities, disseminating information and providing a number of experts to aid in the identification, diagnosis and treatment of anthrax outbreaks. These services are provided to member countries and medical laboratories worldwide.4.   The most pressing factor for the spread of plague are rats. Rats carry fleas which are the vectors for the disease. Apart from rats, some contributing factors to plague outbreaks include incidences of poverty, war, and civil disturbances. A weak public health infrastructure as well as poor facilities are also contributing factors to the spread of plague into an outbre ak.The best way to manage a plague outbreak is through rapid identification and localization. With rapid treatment and action, the mortality levels of plague can be reduced from 60% to less than 15%. To aid with the quick actions on plague, a rapid diagnostic test has been developed.The new test reduces confirmation from 15 days down to 15 minutes. With rapid confirmation, the authorities can more quickly respond to the outbreaks of plague and prevent further contamination of the population.BibliographyUniversity of Pittsburgh Medical Center Center for Biosecurity. (October 8, 2007) Smallpox Fact Sheet. In Center for Biosecurity. Retrieved November 10, 2008 from http://www.upmc-biosecurity.org/website/focus/agents_diseases/fact_sheets/smallpox.htmlUniversity of Pittsburgh Medical Center Center for Biosecurity. (October 8, 2007) Anthrax Fact Sheet. In Center for Biosecurity. Retrieved November 10, 2008 from http://www.upmc-biosecurity.org/website/focus/agents_diseases/fact_sheets/ant hrax.html